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中國藝術史 : 宋朝瓷器
宋朝瓷器

宋朝是中國歷代當中陶瓷藝術的鼎盛時期,其形制優美,高雅凝重,不但超越前人成就,即使後人仿製也少能匹敵。

  宋瓷經學者研究歸納,以定、汝、官、哥、鈞五大名窯最為出名。定窯以白瓷淺刻見長;汝、官、哥窯則以青瓷為主,青瓷係以氧化鐵為發色劑,先在坏體上施以淺浮雕,再施釉,燒成翠綠,影青等等;鈞窯位於鈞州,作品特色為用鐵、銅、鈦等金屬氧化物,經燒成後在土坏表面形成各種紅、綠、紫、白,多采多姿的效果。官窯,顧名思義,即專門為皇室燒製的陶瓷,可見當時的皇帝及貴族多喜愛陶瓷。   

  南宋時代,由於許多北方名窯的工匠避難來到南方,為南宋的青瓷、白瓷工藝帶來新的技術,加上海上絲瓷之路的便利,使中國瓷器開始行銷到世界各地。


【定窯 】
  定窯原來位於定州,現今河北省曲陽縣的靈山鎮,是繼唐代邢窯之後,生產白瓷最好的窯。
  宋室南遷之後,定窯的生產一部份遷移到了景德鎮,一部份到了吉州,這些在南方生產的定窯被稱為南定。其中在景德鎮生產的定窯因為釉色似粉,又稱粉定。定窯還有如柿子般顏色的紅定、紫色的紫定、黑色的黑定等等。

  定窯一般的裝飾手法有劃花、印花、雕花等各種圖案包羅萬象,其製作細膩精緻、線條流暢、胎質堅細、呈乳白或象牙色,以碗盤較多,胎薄而圓正。為避免燒製變形,多採覆燒,再鑲以金屬作緣。


《嬰兒枕》,定窯,宋朝
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【汝窯 】
  汝窯位於河南的臨汝,是北方第一個著名的青瓷窯,其燒製出來的瓷器多用在宮廷之中,因為生產的時間很短,因此留在是上的數量也很少。
  汝窯的造型簡單,但釉色溫潤柔和,在微光之下有如羊脂玉,並截取定窯、越窯的裝飾技法,形成獨特的風格。晚期在臨汝縣燒造的稱為臨汝窯,其中有「奉華」二字的是宋高宗劉妃的堂號,也有人稱是後人補刻的。


《蓮花式溫碗》,汝窯,宋朝

【官窯 】
  官窯是在宋大觀及政和年間於汴涼所造,青瓷釉色晶瑩惕透,釉面呈現開裂狀或冰片狀,粉青紫口是它的特色。後來宋室南移,繼續在鳳凰山下設立官窯,又稱修內司官窯或內窯,另外在郊壇下設立的郊壇下官窯,器形較多,有直徑大過一尺的大型產品。

《弦紋瓶》,官窯,宋朝

【哥窯 】

  哥窯創始者為浙江處州的章氏兄弟,哥哥章生一所燒者為「哥窯」,弟弟章生二所燒者為「弟窯」,又名龍泉窯或章窯。哥窯主要特徵是釉面裂紋開片,這種裂痕是因為釉與胎的收縮率不同而產生的。裂紋因形狀特色,有魚子紋、蟹爪紋、百集碎等名稱。哥窯的釉色包括粉青色和米色,釉中常出現大小氣泡。哥窯的瓷胎呈黑褐色,口緣顯出一道褐色邊,這種現象稱為「紫口鐵足」。


《翠青五管瓶》,龍泉窯,宋朝

【鈞窯】
  鈞窯位於河南的鈞台,傳世不多,評價慎高。鈞窯創始於唐代,歷經宋、金至元代,胎質細膩,釉色華麗奪目、種類之多不勝枚舉;有玫瑰紫、海棠紅、茄子紫、天藍、胭脂、硃砂、火堿鶠A還有窯變。器型以碗盤居多,但以花盆最為出色。器物底部刻有一到十的號數,相傳一、三、五、單數為紅色,二、四、六複數為青色,但也有人說是數字越小器型越大,只是窯工為方便辨認而作的記號罷了。


《花盆》,鈞窯,北宋
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發布者 ortus 於 2003-05-18 14:08:54 (3597 閱讀人次)
 

 
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 Re: 宋朝瓷器

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